Sunday, December 8, 2019

The Interpretation of Act V Scene I Essay Example For Students

The Interpretation of Act V Scene I Essay The Twelfth Night is a Shakespearean romantic comedy that is filled with plenty of humor and lots of deception. It is frequently read as a play about masking, about the conscious and unconscious assumption of false identities and about levels of self-knowledge and self-deception; this theme is played out prominently through Violas transsexual disguise (Kahn 43). The play is comprised of five acts and numerous scenes. However, I am only going to touch on one of these scenes in my paper. The scene I chose to write about is act V scene I. I chose this scene because it is the one that interested me the most, and I feel that it is also the scene with the most hidden meanings. Act V scene I, in my opinion, is a very complicated scene. I am going to discuss the part of the scene just before Sebastian enters, with Viola disguised as Cesario. Viola, in this part, is surrounded by many people all of whom think she is someone other than the person she actually is. This is where Viola/Cesario speaking to Olivia protests undoubtedly her love for Orsino by saying, After him I love, More than I love these eyes, more than my life (Twelfth Night 5.1. 134). Olivia, after hearing this, is confused and protests to Viola that they are married by saying, Whither, my lord? Cesario, husband, stay (Twelfth Night 5.1. 141)! Viola/Cesario denies this and is shocked by the accusation. Olivia continues to press the issue by getting the priest to confirm the marriage. It is at this point, when Orsino hears and believes the priests confirmation of the marriage, that I feel he expresses signs of homosexuality towards Viola whom he still believes is Cesario. Orsino becomes filled wi th anger and jealousy towards Viola/Cesario saying, Farewell, and take her, but direct thy feet where thou and I henceforth may never meet. (Twelfth Night 5.1. 166-167). At some level, Cesario is a homosexual object choice for both Olivia and Orsino; at another, a heterosexual one (Kahn 44). I believe that at this part of the scene Viola/Cesario is experiencing some form of an identity crisis. Although she is a woman who has deceived everyone into believing she is a man, she is now becoming bewildered by a strange turn of events. Shes being accused of denying having known Antonio and having beaten up Sir Toby Belch and Sir Andrew. She is being accused of acts that she has not done and has no recollection of ever doing. The reason she denies all of these wrong doings is because her brother, Sebastian, is responsible. This casts doubt in her mind as to who she really is and what is happening. Sebastian enters the scene and his entrance, in a way, relieves Viola of all the accusations she has endured. It was Sebastian who Antonio has been looking for; it was Sebastian who beat up Sir Toby Belch and Sir Andrew, and finally it was Sebastian who has married Olivia. We come to realize this when he says:I am sorry, madam, I have hurt your kinsman:But had it been the brother of my blood,I must have done no less with wit and safety. I do perceive it hath offended you:Pardon me, sweet one, even for the vowsWe made each other but so late ago. (Twelfth Night 5.1. 207-213)Antonio! O my dear Antonio,How have the hours rackd and torturd me,Since I have lost thee! (Twelfth Night 5.1. 216-218)At this point everyone is stunned not knowing who is who. In a sense, everyone feels as if they are seeing double. Its ironic since Sebastian and Viola are twins. Once Viola and Sebastian realized they were brother and sister Viola feels as though she is free to cast off her masculine disguise and let everyone know that she is really a woman as she talks about putting back on her feminine clothes or her maiden weeds (Twelfth Night 5.1. 253).Karen Greif says that the recognition of identity is at first an experience involving only the reunited twins; but, as the facts of their kinship are brought forth, the circle of awareness expands to include Orsino and Olivia. They appreciate for the first time their shared folly in desiring the unobtainable and both discover true love in unexpected forms by sharing in the recognition of the twins identities (53). Sebastian then turns to Olivia in an attempt to explain exactly what was going on and he says:So comes it, lady, you have been mistook. .u9e609bb1abead91cb54b88750d3b5134 , .u9e609bb1abead91cb54b88750d3b5134 .postImageUrl , .u9e609bb1abead91cb54b88750d3b5134 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u9e609bb1abead91cb54b88750d3b5134 , .u9e609bb1abead91cb54b88750d3b5134:hover , .u9e609bb1abead91cb54b88750d3b5134:visited , .u9e609bb1abead91cb54b88750d3b5134:active { border:0!important; } .u9e609bb1abead91cb54b88750d3b5134 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u9e609bb1abead91cb54b88750d3b5134 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u9e609bb1abead91cb54b88750d3b5134:active , .u9e609bb1abead91cb54b88750d3b5134:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u9e609bb1abead91cb54b88750d3b5134 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u9e609bb1abead91cb54b88750d3b5134 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u9e609bb1abead91cb54b88750d3b5134 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u9e609bb1abead91cb54b88750d3b5134 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u9e609bb1abead91cb54b88750d3b5134:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u9e609bb1abead91cb54b88750d3b5134 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u9e609bb1abead91cb54b88750d3b5134 .u9e609bb1abead91cb54b88750d3b5134-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u9e609bb1abead91cb54b88750d3b5134:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Environmental Pollution EssayBut nature to her bias drew in that. You would have been contracted to a maid;Nor are you therein, by my life, deceivd:You are betrothd both to a maid and man. (Twelfth Night 5.1. 257-261)What he basically was saying was that Olivia mistook Viola for a man and almost married a female servant. Instead, she married Sebastian who will also serve her and who is a man. Natures bias is usually regarded as a heterosexual one, but the line is actually ambiguous; natures bias (Twelfth Night 5.1. 258) can mean that Olivia followed nature in loving a woman, for a short and perhaps necessary period, before actually marrying a man (Kahn 45). Similarly, Orsino perhaps needed to see Viola as a girlish boy before he could accept her as a real and ardent woman (Kahn 45). However, the chain of events that has brought us to this point in the play has proven to be beneficial to Olivia and Orsino. Olivias mistaken marriage has already given her the right husband, and Orsinos unconscious love for Cesario has made it clear where he is to find an adoring wife (Williams JR 43). My first impression of Olivia was to categorize her as a lesbian for falling in love with Viola/Cesario. I felt this way because although Viola was disguised as a man, she was portraying the personality of a female and thats what Olivia fell in love with. As I read on through the play, my feelings on that matter changed. By the end of the play, I felt that Viola was imitating her brothers personality and that is who Olivia really fell in love with and that is the reason she stays married to Sebastian at the end of the play. Coppelia Kahns interpretation of Viola is similar to mine. He says that Viola copes with the supposed loss of her twin brother by, in effect, becoming him; when she disguises herself as a man, she is another Sebastian, her twins twin (Kahn 42). I find Orsinos expression of love to Viola interesting. He knows that Viola loves him because as Cesario she has declared her love to him numerous times Yet Orsino says to Viola, Boy, tho u hast said to me a thousand times thou never shouldst love woman like to me (Twelfth Night 5.1. 265-266). Viola re-confirms her love for him again and Orsino decides to shift his feelings of love from Olivia to Viola. Although Orsino now knows Violas secret of being a woman, he still refers to her as Cesario, her male name, which can be seen in the last line of the play. Cesario, come;For so you shall be while you are a man;But when in other habits you are seen,Orsinos mistress, and his fancys queen. (Twelfth Night 5.1. 384-387)This still adds some question of Orsinos sexuality. The fact that he claimed Viola as his mistress indicates a physical attraction to her, which leads me to believe that he was also attracted to her when he thought she was a man. Now he can openly express his interest and love for Viola because she is a woman and he no longer needs to suppress his true feelings. BibliographyWorks CitedGreif, Karen, Modern Critical Interpretations. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York, New Haven, Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publisher, 1987Kahn, Coppelia, Choosing the Right Mate in Twelfth Night, Modern Critical Interpretations. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York, New Haven, Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publisher, 1987Williams, Porter JR Twentieth Century Interpretations of the Twelfth Night. Ed. Walter N King. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1968Shakespeare, William. The Twelfth Night Ed. J.M. Lothian and T.W. Craik. London: Methuen CO. LTD, 1975

Sunday, December 1, 2019

The Sullivans matrix report Essay Example

The Sullivans matrix report Essay Sullivans matrix introduces different ways to classify the IT/IS environment of an organisation. Within this matrix, there are four environments: Traditional, Opportunistic, Complex and Backbone. The idea of this report is to describe how the IS/IT environment of Inditex fits into Sullivans matrix. According to Ward Peppard (2002) organisations with a traditional IT/IS environment have a highly centralised control of their IT resources. IS is not critical to the business and IT is solely used to improve efficiency on a system-by-system basis. McAfee (2004) raises many points in his article to suggest that the IT/IS of Inditex fits into this Traditional environment. Inditex see IT as merely an enabler for their business. McAfee (2004) confirms this theory as he states that The role of IT, then, is to support the process (McAfee, 2004). Ward Peppard state that within a Traditional environment, IT is simply used to support business processes and to improve the efficiency of the organisation. Another point which supports the theory is that Inditex have an excellent IT and business alignment. business goals always shape the companys use of technology, never vice versa (McAfee, 2004). This portrays Inditex as being entirely business-led where organisational goals invariably define technological innovation. This ethos confirms their desire not to waste money on new systems which do not provide a business value or solution to a specific business problem. McAfee relates to this theory as an inside-out approach. To sum up the arguments, Inditex has one principle which fully shows that their IT/IS environment is Traditional: computerisation is standardised and targeted. You can see this on the low IT budget which is estimated 0. We will write a custom essay sample on The Sullivans matrix report specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Sullivans matrix report specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Sullivans matrix report specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer 5% of revenue and the IT staff of 50. Despite Inditexs focus on the Traditional environment, there are also subtle undertones of Sullivans other three IT/IS environments displayed within the organisation. For example, there are factors which show that elements of Inditexs IT/IS environment is Complex. They are dependent on their PDAs which can also be difficult to manage. In addition they are also largely decentralized, because each store manager has to manage his PDA. This is also the case with regards to their POS systems. Inditex is a company with branches around the world. This makes it difficult to manage each POS in every store. In some points, the IT/IS environment of Inditex also displays Opportunistic aspects. In the case of Inditex the attributes for a Complex and Opportunistic environment are very similar. However, one of the more important factors to consider is the teamwork and cooperation conducted within Inditex. Their success is mainly based on the decision making abilities of their staff. This strategy is ensured as technologists work with line managers to understand what the business requires and then start proposing solutions which shows that the workforce is closely integrated and dependent more upon teamwork and decision making than IT capabilities. This type of culture is defined by Ward Peppard (2002) as being an Opportunistic trait as they state that integration of systems occurs due to user-user cooperation occurs within this type of environment. We also examined whether Inditex had aspects of a Backbone IS/IT environment. This may be a factor as the business processes are highly customised, thus the stores may be dependent on PDAs for instance. However, we do not have enough information from the article to be sure whether traits of the Backbone environment exist within their structure. In the late 1990s when other organisations spent vast sums of money on new technologies, Inditex withheld a Traditional framework. Great success has ultimately been achieved while The relative absence of computers throughout Inditex is nothing short of amazing (McAfee, 2004). Inditex has minimized the use of technology to their business needs and therefore they perform efficiently. In our opinion it is not important to classify which IT/IS environment Inditex has. It is more important that the IT/IS environment matches the business environment and the business needs so that IT can become a value creator in the organisation. There are different types of information, which organisations have to handle. Examples of such information types include business process information (which documents any information about the processes of the organisation), information relating to physical-world observations (which relies on new technologies like GPS or RFID) and biological data containing biometrical information of their customers or employees. Government institutions also use public data like CCTV for public surveillance but the most important data types are those which indicates personal preferences or intentions which is often used by those within the retail market. Once these types of information have been collated, an organisational culture must be established to determine the way in which information should be stored, managed and shared within the organisation to adhere to the goals and objectives set out within the information strategy. Essential for the success of any information management strategy is the existence of an appropriate information culture. An information culture can be defined as the values, attitudes and behaviours that influence the way employees at all levels in the organization sense, collect, organize, process, communicate and use information. (Ward Peppard, 2002 p470) There are four types of information culture defined by Marchand (1995): Functional Culture Within this culture it is the managers prerogative regarding which information is made available to the staff. It also follows a hierarchical structure regarding information sharing. Sharing Culture In this culture there is flat structure which is utilised to encourage trust and openness in order to share information between management and staff members. This culture is based on emotions such as trust which can be either advantageous or detrimental to the operation of the organisation or department as these emotions can frequently change. Enquiring Culture This culture may be used as an effective prediction to provide guidance for future developments. It is based on a sharing culture where managers and staff collaborate while it enables the organisation to reduce the time-to-market of their products. Discovery Culture This culture adds to the enquiring culture and focuses on analysing the gathered information. This helps to provide the organisation with a view of changing environments, competitor performance, areas of possible expansion and potential market entry for the future etc. These cultures are mostly found as combinations in organisations. Organisations have different information assets and their staff members have different information needs. Therefore, in order to use these information assets appropriately you need a customised culture which is aligned to the information needs of the organisation. Tesco provide us with a good example of this cross-over in culture definition as information is generally produced at the managerial level and distributed amongst the workforce while it can also be shared amongst line managers and employees at all levels throughout the organisation. An enquiring culture is also used to develop certain areas of the business to enable future profitability while a discovery culture is in place for Tescos attempted entry into markets such as insurance, banking and Internet broadband. All of these points convey Tesco as a multi-culture organisation where different sectors of their business follow different cultures. As we have discussed, the behaviours and attitudes of a workforce can have a profound effect on the success of an organisations performance. For this reason, the information culture must match the requirements of employees in order to facilitate a successful information strategy. Trust and receptiveness are just two behavioural traits which must be monitored in order for employee acceptance. The importance of considering these factors is agreed by Ferguson et al. who state that sustainable competitive advantage will rely on two very human characteristics: insight and trust (Ferguson et al. , 2005 p58). From this point, we can conclude that the consideration of human aspects is vital for the strategic success of information and without an information culture, it can be very difficult to monitor and influence the behaviour and attitudes of the workforce. References Ferguson, G., Mathur, S., Shah, B. (2005). Evolving From Information to Insight. MIT Sloan Management Review, 46(2), 51-58. Marchand, D.A. (1995, 8 December). What is your companys information culture? Financial Times, pp. 10-11. Ward, J., Peppard, J. (2002). Strategic Planning for Information Systems. West Sussex, England: John Wiley Sons

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Is Iago the real hero in Shakespeares Othello Essay Example

Is Iago the real hero in Shakespeares Othello Essay Example Is Iago the real hero in Shakespeares Othello Paper Is Iago the real hero in Shakespeares Othello Paper Contrary to the mainstream belief of Othello being the tragic hero, I think Iago is the real hero in Shakespeares Othello the moor of Venice. A traditional hero defined as a a man of distinguished courage or ability, admired for his brave deeds and noble qualities. This definition however does not apply to Iago, who is a far more complex hero. He is more similar to the Byronic hero which is a sub type of anti hero. A Byronic hero is: A character of larger-than-life flaws, he generally has very few (if any) redeeming qualities beyond panache and seldom performs any of the heroic actions that are usually required of an Anti Hero. In some cases, the hero part of the name seems to be there only because he tends to be a primary protagonist and thus is a Designated Hero. 1 The word panache used here means a dashing manner; style; swagger . This certainly applies to Iago whose attitude and charisma is a big part of his character. Iago is not the type of hero described in the ancient philosopher Aristotle works. He is more like a hero the audience can relate to, and the focus of the story. After all Iago has 1097 lines whereas Othello only has 274. A lack of lines and a focus as a main character is not the only thing that Othello lacks. In a historical context, an Elizabethan era audience would be more sympathetic and supportive of Iago than Othello. This doesnt mean that the audience was racist. It is simply the fact that Iago is a character the audience could relate to whereas Othello represents the unknown. The combination of his race and his high rank alienates the audience and they would be more likely to support Iagos efforts. Othello therefore would be unable to achieve one of the main goals of a tragedy: invokingfear, pity, sympathy and empathy2 if the audience where with Iago. Another criterion of being a tragic hero is high birth or high status. Othello may hold a high rank in the army, but whether this high status carries any weight in Venetian society is another matter. It could be argued that Othello is merely a military asset of the Venetian government. He is competent at being a soldier but his race is what sets him apart from other generals and noblemen. No matter how civilized and well spoken he is he is still seen as a barbarian. This is demonstrated in the opening scene where we only hear of Othello in negative and derogatory terms before his first appearance and before his name is even mentioned As I mentioned earlier the whole purpose of a tragedy, according to Aristotle, is to provoke great empathy and sympathy from the viewer and give a sense of loss and gain in self-worth, analysis and being. 2 This is mainly shown through the downfall of the main character from a high position leading to the eventual death. But if you take away the audiences support (feelings of sympathy and empathy etc) and the downfall from a high position in society, then Othello will just be a barely civilized barbarian, who murders his wife in a savage bout jealousy at the slightest rumours. And it would match the stereotypes about black people being hot-headed and rash. Another thing that sets Iago apart fro Othello is his use of language. Although Othello is very eloquent and poetic in his use of language at the start of the play, it shows a pattern of steady deterioration. Othellos language becomes more barbaric. O, blood, blood, blood! (III. iii. 452) In contrast, Iagos use of language is his main tool of manipulation. In Act I scene I he uses vulgar bestial imagery to provoke a reaction from Brabantio: Even now, now, very now, an old black ram / Is tupping your white ewe (I. i. 8-89) Moments later, he yells to Brabantio: youll have your daughter covered with a Barbary horse; youll have your nephews neigh to you; youll have coursers for cousins and gennets for germans (I. i. 111-114) Basically he says if Brabantio doesn do something, his whole family will be nothing but horses. This animal imagery that Iago uses is one of the major devices he uses to control his victims, as it helps him call out their rasher, more impulsive and more violent sides. The example above was meant to rush Brabantio into action, to create a sense of urgency, as he uses a repetition of the word now When Othello demands some proof of Desdemonas adultery, Iago tells him that he will never be able to catch Desdemona and Cassio in bed together, while at the same time describing their coupling It is impossible you should see this, / Were they as prime as goats, as hot as monkeys, / As salt as wolves in pride], and fools as gross / As ignorance made drunk (III. iii. 402-405) In act 4 scene 1,Iago works Othello into such a state of jealousy that Othello falls into an epileptic fit. When he wakes up, Iago asks, How is it, general? Have you not hurt your head? (IV. i. 59). Othello answers, Dost thou mock me? (IV. i. 60), because he thinks that Iago might mean that cuckolds horns have hurt his head. A cuckold was a man whose wife was having a sexual affair with another man; folklore said that cuckolds grew horns on their heads. This silly myth portrays such men as dumb animals deserving of scornful laughter. Iago denies that he was mocking Othello, and urges him to bear your fortune like a man! (IV. i. 61). Iagos point is that Desdemonas unfaithfulness is just a matter of fortune, bad luck, and that its nothing to swoon over. Othello replies that A horned mans a monster and a beast (IV. i. 2), which probably describes how he is feelingstrange, non-human. Iago replies that Othello has plenty of company because every city is full of cuckolds. Othello then asks if Iago has heard Cassio confess that he had sex with Desdemona. Rather than give a direct answer to Othellos question, Iago keeps talking about the difference between a beast and a man. He says, Good sir, be a man; / Think every bearded fellow thats but yoked / May draw with you (IV. i. 65-67). Think, like be, is a command; Iago is again telling Othello that there are many other men who are cuckolds, and that he should take it like a man. At the same time, his metaphor suggests that Othello is a beast after all. Oxen are yoked so that they can pull (draw) a plow, and Iago uses the oxens yoke as a metaphor for marriage. In short, any married is likely to be a beastly cuckold. At the end of the same scene, after Othello thinks he has overheard Desdemona confess her love for Cassio, Othello exits with the exclamation, Goats and monkeys! (IV. i. 263), which is an echo of Iagos earlier statement to Othello . Thus we see how Iagos beastly imagery has taken root in Othellos mind.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Avignon Papacy - When the Popes Resided in France

Avignon Papacy - When the Popes Resided in France The term Avignon Papacy refers to the Catholic papacy during the period 1309-1377, when the popes lived in and operated out of Avignon, France, instead of their traditional home in Rome. The Avignon Papacy was also known as: The Babylon Captivity (a reference to the forced detention of Jews in Babylonia c. 598 B.C.E.) Origins of the Avignon Papacy: Philip IV of France was instrumental in securing the election of Clement V, a Frenchman, to the papacy in 1305. This was an unpopular outcome in Rome, where factionalism made Clements life as pope stressful. To escape the oppressive atmosphere, in 1309 Clement chose to move the papal capital to Avignon, which was the property of papal vassals at that time. The French Nature of the Avignon Papacy: The majority of the men that Clement V appointed as cardinals were French; and since the cardinals elected the pope, this meant that future popes were likely to be French, as well. All seven of the Avignonese popes and 111 of the 134 cardinals created during the Avignon papacy were French. Although the Avignonese popes were able to maintain a measure of independence, the French kings did exert some influence from time to time, and the appearance of French influence on the papacy, whether real or not, was undeniable. The Avignonese Popes: 1305-1314: Clement V1316-1334: John XXII1334-1342: Benedict XII1342-1352: Clement VI1352-1362: Innocent VI1362-1370: Urban V1370-1378: Gregory XI Achievements of the Avignon Papacy: The popes were not idle during their time in France. Some of them made sincere efforts to improve the situation of the Catholic Church and to achieve peace in Christendom. Among their achievements: The administrative offices and other agencies of the papacy were extensively, and effectively, reorganized and centralized.Missionary enterprises were expanded; ultimately, they would reach as far as China.University education was promoted.The College of Cardinals began to strengthen their role in the government of church affairs.Attempts were made to settle secular conflicts. The Avignon Papacys Poor Reputation: The Avignon popes were not as much under the control of the French kings as it has been charged (or as the kings would have liked). However, some popes did bow to royal pressure, as Clement V did to a degree in the matter of the Templars. Although Avignon belonged to the papacy (it was purchased from papal vassals in 1348), there was nevertheless the perception that it belonged to France, and that the popes were, therefore, beholden to the French Crown for their livelihoods. In addition, the Papal States in Italy now had to answer to French authorities. Italian interests in the papacy had in past centuries resulted in just as much corruption as in Avignon, if not more so, but this did not stop Italians from attacking the Avignon popes with fervor. One particularly vociferous critic was Petrarch, who had spent most of his childhood in Avignon and, after taking minor orders, was to spend more time there in clerical service. In a famous letter to a friend, he described Avignon as the Babylon of the West, a sentiment that took hold in the imagination of future scholars. The End of the Avignon Papacy: Both Catherine of Siena and St. Bridget of Sweden are credited with persuading Pope Gregory XI to return the See to Rome. This he did on Jan. 17, 1377. But Gregorys stay in Rome was plagued with hostilities, and he seriously considered returning to Avignon. Before he could make any move, however, he died in March 1378. The Avignon Papacy had officially ended. Repercussions of the Avignon Papacy: When Gregory XI moved the See back to Rome, he did so over the objections of the Cardinals in France. The man elected to succeed him, Urban VI, was so hostile to the cardinals that 13 of them met to choose another pope, who, far from replacing Urban, could only stand in opposition to him. Thus began the Western Schism (a.k.a. the Great Schism), in which two popes and two papal curiae existed simultaneously for another four decades. The bad reputation of the Avignon administration, whether deserved or not, would damage the prestige of the papacy. Many Christians were already facing crises of faith thanks to the problems encountered during and after the Black Death. The gulf between the Catholic Church and lay Christians seeking spiritual guidance would only widen.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Demilitarization of Police during War Period Essay

Demilitarization of Police during War Period - Essay Example Having followed keenly the events that occurred in Ferguson after the brutal shooting of the innocent Michael Brown, it dawned on me that the concept of the militarization of the police should be rethought. Therefore, I fully concur with Senator Paul Rand for advocating for the demilitarization in his article dubbed ‘We Must Demilitarize the Police.’ I would like to begin by strongly condemning the tendency of heavily armed police officers across the country. It is a high time the American nation become a peaceful and orderly place to live in. As Senator Rand exclaims, it is not justified to arm the police officers with crude weapons like M14, Kevlar Vests, shotguns, Helmets, M16a, pistols, armored trucks, camouflage, rifle assemblies, automatic rifles, rifle conversion kits, magazine cartridges, mine-resistant vehicles, tear gas and military shirts (Kraska, 2000). To anyone who knows the peace process, these are not weapons to be used for the protection of the citizens. By availing them to the police force, it means that the government is having ill intentions that it is hiding. Therefore, I support the senator for fiercely condemning such acts and advocating for the demilitarization process. The action of the police officers in Ferguson demonstrated how harmful and destructive the militarized police force can be. Even if people were demonstrating to protest the death of Brown, it was not fair for them to be mishandled by the militarized police officers who were obviously not interested in protecting, but terrorizing them. By carrying such crude weapons and cordoning off the remote areas of Ferguson, it is arguable that the police were not considering these people should be offered any protection. Instead, it seems that they had declared them as people to be occupied. Thus, their plea for surrender and retreat could not yield many fruits. So, as the senator puts it, the attack on harmless citizens who were merely expressing their  fury over the death of one of their own was a sign of bad police force.

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Human Resource Management and workforce Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Human Resource Management and workforce - Essay Example The other roles played by the department was to recruit manpower (ensure sufficient numbers of people are available for production,) Training the staff to improve productivity and, ensuring the safety and health of the employees. Still the preliminary focus was to ensure the implementation of Scientific Management techniques and the major work that used to get done routinely was - time-motion studies, fatigue studies, job analysis, developing job specifications, designing compensation program and occasional welfare programs. Typical welfare programs addressed the "other" needs of the employees like wash rooms, vacation, lunchrooms, housing, hygiene etc. 3. The initial stage of personnel management was the creation of Welfare Officers, predominantly women, as a reaction towards the hazardous conditions prevalent in the production floors at that time (it is pertinent to re-collect the economies used to revolve around manufacturing and mining in those days,) which was a heavily paternalistic role of the employers towards the women employees. 4. With the unionization of the work-place, formation of unions at work, greatly contributed to the development of "Labour Managers" at work place aimed at managing the industrial relationships. As the wars changed the industrial relations scenario and strikes were declared illegal, the importance of Industrial Relationships grew by leaps and bounds. 4. As the realization of the importance of Human Relations Approach increased and the fact that human productivity is also influenced by various factors like organization setting, motivation, work place conditions, and finally the need to align business goals with the employees needs. Instead of looking at business goals and employee needs being in direct conflict with each other but being mutual and compatible is the foundation on which the modern HRM is based on. The major factors that influenced the movement from the Personnel Relations to HRM is the movement from collectivism to individualism, as also the radical legislative changes that were undertaken in those times primary one being the banning of sympathetic work striking. Essentially both the principles are fundamentally aimed at improving the employee productivity and thereby boosting the top-lines (then - which meant direct impact on bottom lines) and better value delivery to the stake holders (now.) The difference is that

Sunday, November 17, 2019

British Airways Essay Example for Free

British Airways Essay Going into more deep and applying this theory to such company as British Airways I can say that Product strategy is the main strategy of Marketing Mix (4 P’S). Without Product strategy there is no Place, Price and Promotion. Speaking about BA it is transporting industry its product is not physical and cannot be touched. British Airways product strategy includes flight  services, quality of flights, various destinations across Europe and  the world, executive class, business class, speed, security, support  facilities and years of experience. Nowadays, the main aircrafts which BA uses to transport people are Airbus A318-100, Airbus A319-100, Airbus A320-200, Airbus A321-200, Airbus A380-800, Boeing 737–400, Boeing 747-400, Boeing 767-300ER, Boeing 777–200, Boeing 777-200ER, Boeing 777-300ER, Boeing 787–8, Boeing 787–9. Most of the airplanes which are 77% use either Rolls-Royce or IAE alliance engines. Another 23% is divided between General Electric  and the  CFM International  consortium. To the year 2012 BA operates over 400 aircraft, carries over 62  million passengers annually, and serves more than 200 destinations. British Airways is not only Airline Company it also has its own  engineering branch  to exploit its aircraft fleet, this includes line maintenance at over 70 airports around the world. One more vital option of 4 p’s is Place. The main â€Å"place† were customers can consume services of British Airways is situated in Waterside, close to its main airport at London Heathrow Airport. However BA is international company and you can also find it in main airports all over the world. Also there are two important service centers in Glasgow  and  Cardiff Airports. Turning to the third option which is Price the organization should set the price relative with the value delivered and perceived by the  customer. British Airways has set its services in the way that customers can chose how much they want to pay for this service. Comparing with other Airline Companies BA poses four types of services economy class, premium economy class, business class, premium business class. The difference is in quality of â€Å"product which are you consuming† and the price. So price of the tickets are varied from ? 00 to ? 400. Main success of the company depends on its promotion. People in the promotional team of British Airways know their. First slogan The Worlds Favourite Airline was established in 1989 with the song of The Flower Duet by  Leo Delibes. After this there were a lot of changes like Upgrade to British Airways, The Worlds Favourite Airline, The Worlds Best Airline, Well Take More Care Of You, and Fly the Flag. One of the latest tricks was â€Å"Christmas gift voucher† which is promotional prices. This works during the Christmas holidays and offers lowest prices for their customers. For example flying to 14 travel zones from ? 59 return on UK and Europe destinations and  from ? 269 return on the rest of the world In the end I would like to say that British Airlines is one of the biggest companies in this area and one of the best companies. For a long time it provides its clients with high level services and security which is the most important things in this business. Meanwhile, price is responsible to the quality. Service is easily available and well promoted.